As winter nears on this earth
My days were beckoning waves in the setting sun shining gold as the sea;
What is a ghazal?
The ghazal غَزَل is an ancient form of Arabic poetry about transcendent love and beauty, or about divine love of god, ishq-e-haqiqi عشق حقیقی , that explores the pain of separation and loss.
Ghazal is pronounced gha-zel, with an Arabic gh غ . One meaning of the word ghazal is a graceful young doe, the origin of gazelle in English. Another is to flirt and flatter in spinning a tale, sometimes translated simply as conversation with a woman. Another meaning is the wail of a wounded deer, which ties in with the ghazal’s theme of love and loss, and its performance in song.
Ghazals are most often written in Urdu, Arabic and Persian. It’s the most popular Urdu form of poetry, and one of the most popular forms in South Asia and the Middle East. Because of its beauty, love for the ghazal has spread across the world. Goethe introduced the form to Germany in the 18th century and Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca experimented with the ghazal in his writing. The ghazal became known in the US when Agha Shahid Ali introduced it there in the 1960s.
The plural of ghazal could be ghazaliat or ghazal-haa or other variations, but here in English the plural is most often seen as ghazals.
Originally ghazals were meant to be performed in song, and there's a popular form of this performance in India call Ghazal Gayaki. A Shayar is someone who writes and performs ghazals, Shayar coming from the word for the couplets of poetry, sher. Mushairas is the name of a traditional performance of the ghazal where the audience calls out the refrain, or radif, with the poet.
There are intricate rules for classical Persian and Arabic ghazals. A ghazal consists of 5-15 couplets called sher شعر in Persian (or bayt in Arabic بيت the house, or metrical unit of a line). The sher rhyme internally with a word, the qaafiya قافیہ , which comes directly before the ending word, the radif. The lines end in rhyme in this way: AA BA CA DA EA FA and so on, with A as the radif ردیف . The qaafiya قافیہ , each rhyming with each other, comes right before each radif, the same word or phrase that usually repeats exactly.
The first sher or couplet in a ghazal is the matla’ مطلع which introduces its rhyming pattern and theme. Both lines of the matla’ couplet must contain the qaafiya قافیہ and radif ردیف .
The radif is a word or phrase that repeats like a refrain, the same end to every line. In the Persian ghazal, both lines of the matla’ or first couplet and the second lines of all the other sher must end in the same repeated word or phrase for the radif. In an Arabic ghazal, the radif need not be the same word or phrase repeated, but both lines of the matla' and all the following second lines must rhyme.
In the Persian ghazal, each sher, or couplet, should be independent, like a separate poem, while they all follow the theme of the ghazal. Usually there should be an odd number of sher. In the Arabic ghazal, the couplets are written as a long line, the bayt. All the bayt tie together in the theme of the ghazal and each bayt doesn’t need to stand on its own. In both the Persian and Arabic ghazal, the meter and number of syllables should be the same pattern in each couplet of a ghazal, to follow the rule of meter, or beher بحر .
The last couplet, the maqta’ مقطع is the most personal and is the poet’s signature to the ghazal. The poet often creatively includes his takhallus تخلّص or pen name in the maqta’ to show off his skill as a poet.
The familiar ghazal originated in 7th century Persian courts, coming from the older pre-Islamic Arabic quasida قصيدة during the Umayyad Khalifate (661-750). The quasida were epic poems which could run into 100 couplets. The ghazal became beloved because of its themes and was widely spread by Sufi mystics.
Familiar and popular classical ghazal writers are the Persian poets Rumi (1207-1273) Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī جلالالدین محمد رومی and Hafiz (1315-1390) Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī خواجه شمسالدین محمد حافظ شیرازی and the father of classical Persian literature Rudaki (858-941) Abū 'Abd Allāh Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Rūdhakī ابوعبدالله جعفر بن محمد رودکی
The most famous qasida, Layla and Majnun لیلی و مجنون (or مجنون ليلى Majnun Layla in Arabic) was an ancient Arab tale passed down orally in many versions but made famous by the Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi نظامی گنجوی Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī (1141-1209).
Layla and Majnun tells of a Bedouin boy named Qais who fell in love with his best friend, the beautiful Layla, and spent his days writing love poems to her, becoming a poet as he grew to be a man. Though they had grown up together and Layla loved only Qais, her father refused his permission for her to marry a poet and instead secretly married her to a rich man in another land. Heartbroken, Qais wandered the desert searching for her, still writing love poems to her, so people began to call him Majnun, meaning crazy or madman مجنون Layla never loved her husband and pined away for Qais, dreaming that he would come for her and when he did not, dying of a broken heart thinking he'd forgotten her. But Qais never stopped searching for his childhood love, his Layla. Crossing desert after desert, Majnun finally found his Layla already in her grave, too late for them to be reunited and escape together. He died lying on her grave singing the poems he’d written in his wandering to her ~ the lovers together at last in the ghazal’s eternal, beloved theme of true love and loss.